It’s Science Time!!!

Okay so long story short I was asked to complete a 6000 word literature review on any topic so I chose….

Salivary Biomarkers for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

*sigh*

I mean YAAAAY!!!!

Okay so I started all interested reading so much and getting the background information ready when I realised there were LOADS of scientific abbreviations I didn’t understand.

Yes, I did read the journals several times over but…

So I decided to find the function of every significant salivary biomarker from the 10 papers reviewed.

I have provided a wonderful list of the significant biomarkers, just for you.

Besties!!!

Name and Function of Significant Salivary Biomarkers for OSCC

( ) = Alternative scientific names or abbreviations for biomarkers

Cristaldi et al (2019) 

ctDNA:

KIF1A: Kinesin Family Member 1A – Protein that transports synaptic vesicles and nutrients across axons. 

Promoter hypermethylation:

NID2: Nidogen 2 – Cell adhesion protein. 

HOXA9: Homeobox A9 – Protein coding gene (commonly associated with acute leukaemia). 

Hypermethylation: 

CCNA1: Cyclin A1 – Regulates cell cycles. 

DAPK: Death Associated Protein Kinase – Regulator of cell death and autophagy (elimination of dysfunctional structures or products from cells).  

MGMT:  O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase – converts information for a DNA repair protein but prevents the addition of alkyl groups so may inhibit alkylating chemotherapy.

TIMP3: Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases 3 – Protein coding gene that inhibits proteolytic enzymes or matrix metalloproteinases.

C-deletion in exon 4 codon 63 of p53 gene – Mutation of p53 gene codon 63. 

p53 gene codon 63 is a tumour suppressor, consequently there is proliferation or maturation of OSCC.

ctDNA somatic mutations and HPV genes – Tumour DNA and Human Papillomavirus DNA.

MicroRNAs: Regulate RNA genes

miR-31: MicroRNA-31 – Tumour suppressor inhibits cell invasion and metastasis.  

miR-139-5p: MicroRNA-139-5p – Tumour suppressor regulates cell proliferation. 

Aro et al (2019)

RNA:

DUSP1: Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1 – Protein coding gene initiated by response to damage to fibroblasts e.g. heat, oxidative stress reduces cell proliferation.

H3F3A: H3 Histone, Family 3A – Protein that produces the nucleosome or packages of chromosomal fibres. This process results in DNA coils. 

IL1B: Interleukin 1 Beta – Protein mediator made by many cells including white blood cells is a proinflammatory cytokine for monocytes.  

IL8: Interleukin 8 – Chemokine or small cytokine that mediates white blood cell migration for repair. IL8 activates neutrophils for phagocytosis. 

OAZ1: Ornithine Decarboxylase Antizyme 1 – Regulates polyamines that are responsible for cell growth and repair.

S100P: S100 Calcium Binding Protein P – A protein from the S100P gene that regulates cell processes and binds inorganic compounds like calcium, zinc and magnesium.  

SAT: Spermidine/Spermine N1-acetyltransferase – Regulates polyamine (a natural compound) and normal or neoplastic growth related to polyamine.

IL-8 mRNA: Interleukin 8 messenger RNA – Messenger nucleic acid from cell nucleus DNA and carries genetic material for making IL8.

miRNAs: Regulate RNA genes

miR-125a: MicroRNA-125a-5p – Tumour suppressor inhibits cell migration and induces apoptosis (cell death). 

miR-200a: MicroRNA-200a – Tumour suppressor inhibiting metastasis. 

Lipidomics:

Apolipoprotein E protein – Metabolises fats by binding with fat to create lipoproteins that transport fats in the body.

Gualtero and Suarez Castillo (2016)

Cyfra 21- 1 – Protein fragment a soluble cytokeratin 19/CK19 and epithelial marker.

ZNF510: Zinc Finger Protein 510 – Protein coding gene for associated with gene expression and regulates transcription.

IL-8: Interleukin 8 – Chemokine or small cytokine that mediates white blood cell migration for repair. IL8 activates neutrophils for phagocytosis. 

SAT: Spermidine/Spermine N1-acetyltransferase – Regulates polyamine (a natural compound) and normal or neoplastic growth related to polyamine.

H3F3A: H3 Histone, Family 3A – Protein that produces the nucleosome or packages of chromosomal fibres. This process results in DNA coils. 

Saxena et al (2017)

Microbiota:

Porphyromonas gingivalis – Gram negative, proteolytic, anaerobic bacteria. Involved in many conditions including periodontal disease, invades gingival epithelium.

Tannerella forsythia – Gram negative, proteolytic, anaerobic bacteria Involved in periodontal disease. Initiates alveolar bone connective tissues destruction.

Candida albicans – A common fungal infection causing yeast. 

Bacteriodes melaninogenica – Gram negative, anaerobic bacteria that is ‘haemolytic’ kills red blood cells and creates biofilm to spread.

Streptococcus mitis – Gram negative, facultative anaerobic bacteria. Can colonise hard tissues like enamel and mucosa. 

Genomics:

p53 exon 4 codon 63 mutations – Mutation of p53 gene codon 63. p53 gene codon 63 is a tumour suppressor, consequently there is proliferation or maturation of OSCC.

Transcriptome:

mRNA: interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA –Messenger ribonucleic acid from cell nucleus DNA and carries genetic material for making IL8.

mRNA: H3F3A (H3 histone family 3A) mRNA – Messenger ribonucleic acid from cell nucleus DNA and carries genetic material for making H3F3A.

IL-1-b: Interleukin 1 Beta – Protein mediator made by many cells including white blood cells is a proinflammatory cytokine for monocytes.  

S100P: S100 Calcium Binding Protein P – A protein from the S100P gene that regulates cell processes and binds inorganic compounds like calcium, zinc and magnesium.  

mRNA: DUSP1: Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1 mRNA – Messenger ribonucleic acid from cell nucleus DNA and carries genetic material for making DUSP1.

OAZ1: Ornithine Decarboxylase Antizyme 1 – Regulates polyamines that are responsible for cell growth and repair.

SAT Spermidine/Spermine N1-acetyltransferase – Regulates polyamine (a natural compound) and normal or neoplastic growth related to polyamine.

Soluble CD44 – Cell surface glycoprotein that regulates metastasis. 

Chattopadhyay and Panda (2019)

Transcriptome:

miR-31: MicroRNA-31 – Tumour suppressor inhibiting some stages of metastasis e.g. invasion and colonisation. 

miR-136: MicroRNA-136 – Tumour suppressor for invasion and metastasis.

miR-147: MicroRNA-147 – Down regulates the inflammatory response of macrophages.

miR-1250: MicroRNA-1250 – Tumour suppressor affecting Gene GPC3 that produces Glypican-3 a protein for cell proliferation.

miR-148a: MicroRNA-148a – Tumour suppressor inhibiting many stages of tumour growth and initiating apoptosis.

miR-632: MicroRNA-632 – Gene associated with breast cancer, blood cancer, hepatocellular cancer and angiogenesis in gastric cancer. 

miR-646: MicroRNA-646 – Tumour suppressor inhibiting cell proliferation.

miR-668: MicroRNA-668 – Regulates mitochondrial function and NLRP3 NLR Family Pyrin Domain Containing 3 that plays a role in T helper cells detection of pathogens.

miR-877: MicroRNA-877 – Tumour suppressor that inhibits cell proliferation, invasion, colonisation, migration and stimulates apoptosis.

miR-503: MicroRNA-503 – Reduces cell proliferation and migration and encourages apoptosis of endothelial cells.

miR-200a: MicroRNA-200a – Tumour suppressor inhibiting metastasis. 

miR-323-5p: MicroRNA-323-5p – Tumour suppressor linked to the inhibition of proliferation and migration of cancerous glial cells or glioma of the brain and spinal cord.

miR-24: MicroRNA-24 – Promotes tumour invasion and metastasis.

miR-27b – Tumour suppressor regulates proliferation invasion and migration. Associated with endothelial cells and breast cancer.

Proteomics: 

IL-1µ: Interleukin Alpha – Pro-inflammatory cytokine made by macrophages that stimulates the proliferation and maturation of B-cells.

IL-6: Interleukin 6 – Proinflammatory cytokine that stimulates bone resorption by osteoclasts. 

IL-8: Interleukin 8 – Chemokine or small cytokine that mediates white blood cell migration for repair. IL8 activates neutrophils for phagocytosis. 

VEGF-A: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A – Initiates tumour angiogenesis, formation of new blood vessels and stimulates proliferation and migration of endothelial cells.   

TNF-µ: Tissue Necrosis Factor Alpha – Proinflammatory cytokine stimulated by macrophages and monocytes, cell mediator for necrosis and apoptosis. Cell death.

Cyfra 21-1: Cytokeratin 19 protein fragment – Epithelial marker that remains despite malignant changes. 

TPA: Tissue Plasminogen Activator – Enzyme produced by endothelial cells and responsible for the breakdown of clots by conversion of plasminogen to plasmin.

CA-125: Cancer Antigen -125 – Tumour marker found on the surface of ovarian cancer cells and associated with diagnosis of ovarian cancer. 

bFGF: Basic fibroblast growth factor – Protein for tissue repair, regeneration and differentiation by stimulating fibroblast proliferation. Can also trigger tumorigenesis in dysfunction.

Microbiome: 

Haemopilus – Bacteria linked to numerous bacterial infections including: meningitis, sepsis, pneumonia, pericarditis, epiglottitis, septic arthritis, cellulitis and osteomyelitis.  

Neisseria – Gram-negative, non-motile bacteria that colonises the surface of mucosa, this genus is responsible for meningitis and gonorrhoea diseases.  

Aggregatibacter – Gram-negative genus that can lead to infective endocarditis and periodontal disease specifically periodontitis. 

Lactobacillus and Lactobacillaceae – Rod-shaped gram-positive bacteria that metabolises glucose to produce lactic acid. Associated with dental caries. 

Metabolomics: 

Phenylalanine – Amino acid obtained from food and used by the body to produce proteins and enzymes. Phenylalanine dysfunction linked to gastroesophageal cancer. 

Valine – Amino acid inducing protein synthesis as well as the maintenance and repair of the muscles.

lactic acid – A by-product of metabolism e.g. respiration the build-up of lactic acid. In carcinomas lactic acid is thought to support angiogenesis and suppression of the immune system. 

Hema Shree et al (2019)

MMP-9: Matrix metalloproteinase 9 – Is a proteolytic enzyme linked to periodontal disease and cancer cell invasion. 

Chemerin – An ‘adipokine’ or cytokine released from adipose and other tissues linked to the generation of fat cell, new blood vessels and inflammation. 

Choline – Water soluble, natural compound obtained from food like eggs or fish that supports metabolism and cell growth.

Betaine – Compound found in beetroot, some seafood and wheat that regulates water balance within cells, metabolises choline and assists cell metabolism transcription via DNA methylation. 

Pipecolinic acid – Product of human metabolism found in urine, cerebrospinal fluid and blood as a result of lysine metabolism. Lysine creates protein. 

I-carnitine – Delivers fatty acids to mitochondria to supply the body with energy.

Stuani et al (2016)

Cytokines:

IL-1µ Interleukin Alpha – Pro-inflammatory cytokine made by macrophages that stimulates the proliferation and maturation of B-cells.

IL-1-b: Interleukin 1 Beta – Protein mediator made by many cells including white blood cells is a proinflammatory cytokine for monocytes.  

IL-1RA: Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist – Competes with Interleukin 1 IL-1 for binding sites to prevent the pro-inflammatory effects of IL-1. 

IL-6 Interleukin 6 – Proinflammatory cytokine that stimulates bone resorption by osteoclasts. 

IL-8: Interleukin 8 – Chemokine or small cytokine that mediates white blood cell migration for repair. IL8 activates neutrophils for phagocytosis. 

IL-10: Interleukin 10 – An anti-inflammatory with homeostatic effects on the immune system. Produced by many cells like macrophages, b-cells and cytotoxic T-cells.

IL-13: Interleukin 13 – Anti-inflammatory releasing proteolytic enzymes to respond to allergic reactions involving the airways. Although, IL-13 also stimulates b-cells to release immunoglobulin E to cause the allergic reaction.

TNF-a Tissue Necrosis Factor Alpha – Proinflammatory cytokine and cell mediator for necrosis and apoptosis (cell death), stimulated by macrophages and monocytes.

Growth factors: 

VEGF-a Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A – Initiates tumour angiogenesis, formation of new blood vessels and stimulates proliferation and migration of endothelial cells.   

EGF: Epidermal Growth Factor – Stimulates cell proliferation, growth and differentiation from mesenchyme. 

IGF-I: Insulin-like Growth Factor – Liver derived hormone, secreted when growth hormone is released. IGF-I is a cell protecting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory.

Immunoglobulins:

Total IgG: Total Immunoglobulin G – Antibody produced by B-cells that protects the body from bacterial, viral and fungal infections. 

Secretory IgA: Secretory Immunoglobin A – Found in many body secretions including saliva, which protects the epithelium from antigens. 

Transmembrane tyrosine receptors:

EGF/EGFR: Epidermal Growth Factor/Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor– Stimulates cell proliferation, growth and differentiation from mesenchyme. EGFR is where EGF binds.

Metalloproteinases:

MMP-2: Matrix Metalloproteinase -2/Gelatinase A’ – is a proteolytic enzyme also playing a role in vascular tissue regeneration, new blood vessels and invasion of tumour cells.

MMP-9 Matrix metalloproteinase 9 – Is a proteolytic enzyme linked to periodontal disease and cancer cell invasion. 

Antigens:

CA125: Cancer Antigen -125 – Tumour marker found on the surface of ovarian cancer cells and associated with diagnosis of ovarian cancer. 

bFGF: Basic fibroblast growth factor – Protein for tissue repair and regeneration.

TPS: Tissue Polypeptide Specific Antigen – Tumour biomarker for monitoring the proliferation of tumour cells.

Ki67- Tumour biomarker for monitoring the proliferation and growth of tumour cells.

Enzymes:

Heparanase –Binds to heparan sulphate that stimulates macrophages causing inflammation as well as growth and metastasis of tumours.

Adenosine deaminase – Made by cells like lymphocytes with homeostatic effects on the immune system.  

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) –Speed up the conversion of pyruvate to lactate and vice versa. Cancer patients typically have high levels of LDH. 

OGG1 (8-oxyguanine Glycosylase) – Removes useful genes from Damaged DNA.

Phospho-Src – Mediates cell adhesion proliferation growth and metastasis.    

Peptides:

Endothelin-1 (ET-1) – Increases blood pressure in blood vessels via strong vasoconstrictor properties.    

ZNF510: Zinc Finger Protein 510 – Protein coding gene for associated with gene expression and regulates transcription.

HNP-1: Human Neutrophil Peptide1 – Antimicrobial protein secreted from neutrophils. 

Aldehyde: 

Acetaldehyde production – Considered a carcinogen found in cigarettes, coffee and naturally in fruits, vegetables and plants. Acetaldehyde is also formed when alcohol dehydrogenase an enzyme created by the liver oxidises ethanol found in alcohol.

Hormone:

Cortisol – One of the steroid hormones produced by the adrenal glands. Cortisol is responsible for responding to stress by increasing blood pressure to supply the body with more energy and glucose to the brain. This hormone also suppresses other body systems like digestion so energy and nutrients can be available to manage stress. 

Oxidative stress related molecules: 

Carbonyls – compound with a single carbon atom double bound to an oxygen atom within a molecule, which allows cells to modify their functions with mutagenic and carcinogen properties e.g. formaldehyde 

Antioxidant capacity – The measured ability of the antioxidant to manage free radicals in disease samples. 

Total antioxidant status (TAS) – The testing of the antioxidant effects on oxidative stress. 

Peroxidase – Enzymes within cells that breakdown harmful by-products of cell metabolism like hydrogen peroxide from into non-toxic hydrogen and water. 

Glutathione S-transferase – Detoxification enzymes that speeds up the direct contact gene sharing of the antioxidant Glutathione (GSH) that prevents free radicals in cells. 

Superoxide dismutase – Enzyme that accelerates chemical reactions in the body.

Uric acid – Waste product of the body, high levels can be a sign of disease. 

NO: Nitric oxide – Colourless gas and a principle oxide on the nitrogen. High levels of NO can halt or kill tumour cells but may not prevent metastasis. 

NO2: Nitrogen Dioxide – Bad smelling gas and Nitrogen oxide. Common air pollutant. Highly reactive gas, linked to lung cancer.    

NO3: Nitrate – Water soluble compound used as a food preservative; vegetables are natural sources of nitrate for the body. Nitrates dilate blood vessels to lower blood pressure or react with amines with carcinogenic results. 

8-OHdG: 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine – Oxidised product of deoxyguanosine commonly detected in urine for assessment of oxidative stress. An inconclusive biomarker for carcinogenesis.  

Genetic and Epigenetics:

C deletion on exon 4 within p53 gene codon 63 – Mutation of p53 gene codon 63. p53 gene codon 63 is a tumour suppressor, consequently there is proliferation or maturation of OSCC.

Genes expression: 

MMP1 (Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/ Interstitial Collagenase/ Fibroblast Collagenase) – Proteolytic enzyme and protein coding gene for tissue mitosis embryonic development, and modification. MMP1 reported to support the metastatic process of cancer cells.  

FN: Fibronectin 1 – Liver produced protein coding gene assisting wound healing and the clotting cascade. Research suggests increased numbers of FN1 genes in several cancers and propose FN1 is supportive of cancer cell proliferation.   

FAPA: Fibroblast Activation Protein Alpha – Cell surface proteolytic enzyme of somatic cells surfaces (of cells that divide). Tissues remodelling properties. Clinical exploration suggests FAPA assists invasive processes of epithelial cancer cells. 

SRPINH2 (Common research abbreviation = SERPINE2): (Serpin Peptidase Inhibitor, Clade E, Member 2) – Protein coding gene for cell neurogenesis, heparin-binding and differentiation.  SERPINE2 is an inhibitor of serine proteases involved in the clotting and wound healing: Plasmin Thrombin, Trypsin and Urokinase. 

IL8: Interleukin 8 – Chemokine or small cytokine that mediates white blood cell migration for repair. IL8 activates neutrophils for phagocytosis. Linked to cancer cell motility and progression.

IgLA: Intracellular Growth Locus Protein A – Mediator of intracellular macrophage processes and human cell processes by release of regulating substances. IgLA potentially assists cancer cell metastasis research links this to bone involvement.  

ABCG1: ATP Binding Cassette Subfamily G Member 1 – Protein coding gene for homeostasis of lipids in the body. Associated with tumour immunity. 

COL5A1: Collagen Type V Alpha 1 Chain – Protein coding gene for the production of pro-α1(V) an element in collagen V. High levels found in tongue squamous cell carcinoma amongst other cancers also linked to Ehlers Danlos Syndrome.

HBB: Haemoglobin Subunit Beta – Protein coding gene for Beta-globin (b-globin) the oxygen carrying, red pigment protein of haemoglobin in red blood cells. Linked to Thalassaemia, Thyroid Cancer and Sickle Cell Disease. It has been asserted in clinical investigations that adequate levels of HBB inhibits abnormal cell growth. 

DNA methylation:

ECAD: Epithelial Cadherin (CAM 120/80/ E-Cadherin /Uvomorulin) – Protein for coding calcium depend protein for the regulation of cell adhesion giving tissues their structure, epithelial cell proliferation and cell motility. Associated with tumour suppression, specifically invasion and metastasis.   

MGMT: O-6-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase – Protein coding gene for DNA regeneration. Oncology research has proposed MGMT silencing in cancer patients.

DAPK: Death Associated Protein Kinase 1 (DAPK1) – Tumour suppressor that regulates cell mediation and cell death. Oncology research associates DAPK1 dysfunction with the development of cancer cells. 

RARb: Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta (RAR-beta/ NR1B2 Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group B, Member 2) – Protein coding gene for tumour suppression via use of retinoic acid that assists cell mediation of differentiation, morphogenesis and growth. 

p16: Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2a (CDKN2A) – Protein for tumour suppression, specifically by obstruction of the cell cycle following the initial G1 (growth phase). p16 inhibits cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) with p16 deletion observed in numerous cancers.

p15: Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 Inhibitor B (CDKN2B /p15INK4b/ MTS2/INK4b) – Tumour suppressor via initiation of TGF-β- cell inhibition pathways, capable of inhibiting specific tumour cells.

TMEFF2: Tomoregulin-2 (TENB2) – Protein coding gene for Tomoregulin Transmembrane Proteins, with the ability to operate as both a tumour suppressor and a cancer cell causing gene.  

TMEFF3: No further information found.

HIN-1: High in Normal 1 – Inconclusive protein tumour suppressor of cancer cell invasion and growth, adhering to epithelial cells. Research proposes that HIN-1 can arrest the activity of breast cancer cells.

WIF-1: WNT Inhibitory Factor 1 – Protein coding gene that adheres to fat with tumour suppressing properties.  

FHIT: Fragile Histidine Triad Diadenosine Triphosphatase – Protein coding gene linked to Breast Cancer and Renal Cancer, with tumour suppression and DNA protection functions.

SPARC: Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (Osteonectin) – Non-collagenous protein detected in bone. SPARC regulates cell growth and binds to numerous proteins and minerals like calcium and albumin. SPARC aids cancer progression in some cancers (e.g. melanomas) and acts as a tumour suppressor in others (e.g. neuroblastomas).  

APC: Adenomatous Polyposis Coli – Tumour suppressing protein preventing proliferation and growth. 

ADCYAP1: Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide 1 – Protein stimulating genome transcriptional activities. Linked to the onset of cervical cancer. 

AGTR1: Angiotensin II Receptor Type 1 – Makes the protein that regulates solutes and fluids as part of the Renin-Angiotensin System. Research suggests AGTR1 assists many stages of carcinogenesis including: proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis.    

BMP3: Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3 – Tumour suppressing protein and coding gene for the mediation of transcription factors. 

CEBPA: CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha – Transcription factor that contributes to the differentiation of granulocytes and cell cycles. Inconclusive findings regarding its potential function as an oncogene. 

EPHA5: Ephrin Type-A Receptor 5 – Protein that plays a role in ATP binding, nucleotide binding and neurogenesis (formation of new neurons). Clinically associated with tumour invasion, growth and migration.      

ERBB4: Erb-B2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase 4 – A gene, which with factors that initiate cell mitosis and differentiation. Mutations of ERBB4 linked to the development of numerous cancers e.g. lung adenocarcinoma and melanoma. 

ESR1: Estrogen Receptor 1 – Gene for coding of oestrogen receptors for tissue growth (e.g. bone), sexual development and reproduction. Mutations of ESR1 clinically associated with Osteoporosis, Endometrial Cancer (cancer of the uterus), Breast Cancer and Oestrogen Resistance. 

ETV1: ETS-translocation variant 1 – Transcription factor for the development of dopamine neurons, motor neurons and sensory or proprioceptive neurons. Research links ETV1 to several stages of carcinogenesis: differentiation, proliferation angiogenesis, growth and metastasis. 

EYA4: EYA Transcriptional Coactivator and Phosphatase 4 – Protein coding gene for stimulation of transcriptional processes for development of the eyes.  It has also been clinically proposed that EYA4 is also an oncogene regulating genome repair, innate immunity following viral and cell damage and cell apoptosis.  

FGF3: Fibroblast Growth Factor 3 – Protein coding gene contributing to various healthy cell and tumour cell cycle activities such as: growth, repair development and morphogenesis. Linked to cancers like oesophageal cancer and hepatocellular cancer to name few. 

FGF8: Fibroblast growth factor 8 – Protein coding gene for the production of fibroblasts cells that make collagen. Associated with increase in growth and angiogenesis of tumours.

FLT1: Fms Related Receptor Tyrosine Kinase 1 – Protein coding gene for making new endothelial cells and new blood vessels. Linked to many head and neck carcinomas and blood carcinomas.  

GABRB3: Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor Subunit Beta 3 – Protein encoding gene for the receptor the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid. Research proposes down regulation of GABRB3 to be linked to late stages of cancer and cancer cell motility to lymph nodes. 

GALR1: Galanin Receptor 1 (Galanin Receptor Type 1 / GALNR1 / GAL1-R / GALR-1 / GALNR / GALR1) – Proteins utilised by neurons for communication, located in the CNS and autonomic nervous system. GALR1 also functions as a tumour suppressor, halting tumour activity like cancer cell proliferation. 

GAS7: Growth Arrest Specific 7 – Protein coding gene for the development of specialised neurons and mature Purkinje Cells of the Cerebellar Cortex that governs movement of the body. Role in tumour suppression associated with Breast Cancer.

HLF: Hepatic Leukaemia Factor (HLF Transcription Factor/ PAR BZIP Family Member) – Gene coding to initiate transcription associated with leukaemia. 

IHH: Indian Hedgehog Signalling Molecule – Protein coding gene for growth and differentiation of bone. Tumour suppressing abilities in lung cancer explored as well hereditary developmental conditions like Acrocapitofemoral Dysplasia, which causes dysplasia of the skeleton and results in a narrow chest and short limbs. 

IL11: Interleukin 11 – Protein coding gene for cytokines stimulating humoral system production of B-cells (antibodies) mediated by T-cells, blood cell proliferation and Megakaryocytes to increase platelet levels. Reported to support the proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. Conclusive presence in various cancers but role inconclusive. 

INSR: Insulin Receptor – Bound insulin or other molecules turns insulin signalling pathways on to regulate blood glucose levels and assembling of other useful molecules like lipids, carbohydrates and proteins. Reported as detected in all cancers. 

IRAK3: Interleukin 1 Receptor Associated Kinase 3 – Located in monocytes and macrophages triggering the inflammatory response. Detected in many cancers. Repressed gene transcription (methylation) of IRAK3 has been reported to be an indicator of poor prognosis or progression of cancer. 

KDR: Kinase Insert Domain Receptor – (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor / VEGFR2) – Manages the construction and vascularity of new blood vessels. KDR also supports cell processes for endothelium and actin a protein of the cytoskeleton. Dysfunction of KDR associated with several cancers like Cutaneous Melanoma.

NOTCH3: Notch Receptor 3 – Transcriptional gene responsible for cell proliferation, differentiation, cell death and cell pathways for neural development. Reported as a supporting gene for ovarian cancer progression and related cancer cell cycle processes.  

NTRK3: Neurotrophic Receptor Tyrosine Kinase 3 – Protein coding gene for motile growth cones that allow developing axons to synapse. NTRK3 linked to differentiation of cells and cancers like Fibrosarcoma. 

PKD2: Gene coding for Polycystin-2 a protein regulated by Polycystin-1. Polycystin-2 regulates cell motility and proliferation and transport of molecules within the kidneys. PKD2 has been associated with Renal Cancer, Prostrate Cancer and Breast Cancer, Colorectal (bowel) Cancer and Lung Cancer. 

PTCH2: Patched 2 – Tumour suppressor gene with protein binding ability. Reported in connection with cancer such as Basal Cell Carcinoma and development defects like Congenital Macrostomia (facial cleft). 

PXN: Paxillin – Gene for coding of the protein that allows actin adhesion to extracellular matrix. Reported as a contributing to Papilloma.  

RASGRF1: Ras Protein Specific Guanine Nucleotide Releasing Factor 1 – Protein coding gene for Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) that activates other proteins for the production of RNA during transcription of genes. Reported as a promoter of cancer cell growth and motility. 

TFPI2: Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor 2 – Tumour suppressor and inhibitor of proteins involved in the clotting cascade. Linked to epithelial cancer Choriocarcinoma and Fibrosarcoma.  

TMEFF1: Transmembrane Protein with EGF Like and Two Follistatin Like Domains 1 (Tomoregulin-1) – Inconclusive tumour suppressor for Brain Cancers.

TNFSF10: TNF Superfamily Member 10 (Tumour Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily, Member 10) – Protein encoding gene for cell mediators of Tumour Necrosis Factors. Tumour Necrosis Factors kill tumour cells without affecting healthy cells. Clinically reported in connection with Ameloblastoma (tumours of the jaws caused by enamel forming cells, which can cause facial disfigurement) and Thoracic Cancer.    

TWIST1: Twist Family BHLH Transcription Factor 1 – Protein coding gene for proteins converting DNA to RNA during embryonic development. TWIST1  is associated with motility and invasion of tumour cells. 

WNT2: Wnt Family Member 2 – Protein coding gene molecules with signalling ability via cell surface receptors. Linked to tumour development and progression in various cancers including oesophageal, lung and colon cancer. 

WT1: Wilms Tumour 1 (WT1 Transcription Factor) – Protein coding gene and tumour suppressor, also clinically reported as a contributory variable to rare kidney cancer Wilms Tumour 1 or Nephroblastoma. 

LOH (Loss of heterozygosity), loci (markers of where changes on chromosomes have taken place/ microsatellites): Tracks loss of one set of genes by chromosomal changes at specific sites, which are marked.

D3S656: Polymorphic marker (detecting the numerous forms that chromosomes can take)

D3S1293: Polymorphic marker for tumour suppression in head and neck cancer.

D3S1234: Polymorphic marker linked to pulmonary adenocarcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma. 

D3S1217: Polymorphic marker associated with breast cancer.

D3S126: Polymorphic marker

D8S254: Polymorphic marker, inconclusively reported to be close to tumour suppressor genes. 

D8S261: Polymorphic marker, linked to schizophrenia predispositions, Renal Carcinomas, Prostate Cancer and Breast Cancer.  

LPL-tet: Polymorphic marker, tumour and invasion in HNSC Head and Neck Squamous Cancer.

D8S298: Polymorphic marker, reported with the progression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. 

D8S283: Polymorphic marker, associated with Colon Cancer. 

D9S104: Polymorphic marker for tumour suppression in Oral Cancer.

D9S156: Polymorphic marker clinically related to Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

D9S168: Polymorphic marker for progression of Renal Cancer.

D9S171: Polymorphic marker linked to Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. 

D9S199: Polymorphic marker, reported with the progression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. 

D17S513: Polymorphic marker, linked to Colon Cancer and Breast Cancer.   

TP53: Tumour Protein 53 – Polymorphic marker, inconclusive tumour suppressor. 

D17S799: Polymorphic marker, clinically related to Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

CHRNB1: Cholinergic Receptor Nicotinic Beta 1 Subunit – Protein coding gene that aids the production of acetylcholine receptors for neural synapsing and activity across plasma membranes. Identified in numerous cancers including head and neck cancers.

D17S122: Polymorphic marker, reported in Breast Cancer research.

D18S46: Polymorphic marker for tumour suppression, Ovarian Cancer, Anal Carcinoma and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. 

D18S363: Polymorphic marker linked to nerve tissues cancer (Neuroblastoma), and colon cancer.

D18S35: Polymorphic marker associated with metastasis in Prostate Cancer and Colon Cancer. 

D18S39: Polymorphic marker for tumour suppression in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

e D18S41: Polymorphic marker associated with Bipolar Disorder, Male Breast Cancer and Prostate Cancer.

DUSP1 mRNA – Messenger nucleic acid from cell nucleus DNA and carries genetic material for making Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1.

OAZ1 mRNA – Messenger nucleic acid from cell nucleus DNA and carries genetic material for making Ornithine Decarboxylase Antizyme 1.

S100P mRNA – Messenger nucleic acid from cell nucleus DNA and carries genetic material for making S100 Calcium Binding Protein P.

SAT1 mRNA – Messenger nucleic acid from cell nucleus DNA and carries genetic material for making Spermidine/Spermine N1-acetyltransferase 1.

Other proteins: 

Total protein – Test that measures the quantity of protein in blood serum. High levels associated with cancer or low fluid intake.

Albumin – Liver made protein regulating osmotic pressure within cells. Low levels reported in cancer patients.

Cyclin D1 – Protein produced by gene CCDN1 that regulates the cell cycle. Also, a research suggested oncogene (cancer casing gene). 

Maspin – Tumour suppressor gene, inhibiting invasion and metastasis. 

Serotransferrin – Iron binding transport glycoprotein found in blood plasma. 

Hemopexin (HX /HPX / beta-1B-glycoprotein) – Glycoprotein that collects free haem in the bloodstream, to prevent oxidative damage caused by a decrease in iron levels. 

a-1B: Alpha 1 B adrenergic receptor – Binds with amines adrenaline or noradrenaline to cause cellular changes such as non-malignant mutations or transformation to an oncogene (cancer causing gene). 

Glycoprotein – Proteins with carbohydrates attached that are found on the surface of a cell membrane. Glycoproteins identify and regulate the transport of substances in and out of the cell. Dysfunction would allow antigens both in and out of cells.  

a1-Antitrypsin (α1-AT / AAT) – A protein made in the liver that protects the lungs by inhibiting the production of proteolytic enzymes. Elevated levels reported in clinical tests of numerous cancers including lung adenocarcinoma, prostate cancer and OSCC.

Haptoglobin b Chain (HP) – Binds haemoglobin to plasma to allow proteolytic breakdown, whilst simultaneously prevent kidney mutations and retaining free iron molecules. Reported as present in the early stages of many different cancers including lung cancer. 

Fibrinogen b (Fibrinogen Beta Chain/ FGB) – A gene that assists with the production of fibrinogen a protein for blood coagulation. Reported as a biomarker in Oral Cancer diagnostics and suggested to support prognosis. 

Complement C3 (Complement Component 3 / C3) – Humoral (immune system) protein that makes direct contact to kill viruses and bacteria. However, it has been reported that C3 supports the cancer cell cycle: angiogenesis (construction of new blood vessels) and cancer cell progression.

Transthyretin (TTR) –A transport protein made in the liver that carries the thyroid hormone T4 (thyroxine) and binds retinol binding protein. TTR found in CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) and blood serum. Research proposes that TTR initiates the growth of tumours including cancerous types. 

Inorganic Compounds:

Sodium (Na) – Essential electrolyte for homeostasis of: blood pressure, neurotransmission, muscle function and maintenance of osmotic pressure within cells. Low sodium levels observed in cancer diagnostic testing.

Potassium (K) – Essential electrolyte for homeostasis of: the cardiovascular system, bone density, nerve and muscle function as well as maintenance of osmotic pressure within cells. Increased levels of K inside cancer cells suppresses the activity of the immune system.  

Calcium – Essential electrolyte for: formation of bone, blood coagulation, regulation of the cardiovascular system, nerve transmission and hormone release. High levels of calcium in blood or hypercalcaemia can be an indication of cancer as cancer cells can invade bone and cause this connective tissue to release calcium into the bloodstream.   

Radhika et al (2016)

DUSP1 – Protein coding gene initiated by response to damage to fibroblasts e.g. heat, oxidative stress reduces cell proliferation.

miR-125a – Tumour suppressor inhibiting metastasis. 

miR-200a: MicroRNA-200a – Tumour suppressor inhibiting metastasis. 

miR-31: MicroRNA-31 – Tumour suppressor inhibiting some stages of metastasis e.g. invasion and colonisation. 

M2BP: (Mac-2 Binding Protein) – Cell adhesion protein that helps to regulate the immune system. Increased level of the protein associated with some cancers e.g. lung and prostate cancers. 

MRP14 (Migration Inhibitory Factor-Related Protein 14) – S100 Calcium binding protein identified in stimulated neutrophils during inflammation. Inhibits macrophage migration.

CD59 – A gene that is coded for a glycoprotein that inhibits membrane attack complex, whereby cells self-destruct. Its overexpression reported with tumour progression and motility of tumour cells. 

Profilin1 (PFN1) – Uses ATP (adenosine triphosphate) cellular energy to change the composition of actin. 

Catalase – Antioxidant enzyme that protects cells from free radicals and breaks down hydrogen peroxide to non-toxic water and hydrogen molecules. Also reported to protect cancer cells for oxidative damage.

Khurshid et al (2018)

Proteomics: 

CD59 – A gene that is coded for a glycoprotein that inhibits membrane attack complex, whereby cells self-destruct. Its overexpression reported with tumour progression and motility of tumour cells. 

Profilin – Protein regulator of cellular actin regeneration and repair through direct binding with actin. The increase of Profilin levels is reported to be a tumour suppressor, whilst low levels are thought to allow cancer cell invasion of tissues.

MRP14 (Migration Inhibitory Factor-Related Protein 14) – S100 Calcium binding protein identified in stimulated neutrophils during inflammation. Inhibits macrophage migration.

M2BP (Mac-2 Binding Protein) – Cell adhesion protein that helps to regulate the immune system. Increased level of the protein associated with some cancers e.g. lung and prostate cancers. 

CD44 – Glycoprotein on the surface of cells involved in numerous cell processes including cell mediation. Also, a cell lymphocyte receiving receptor. Research proposes increased expression in early cancer cells. 

Tissue Polypeptide-Specific Antigens (TPS) – Tumour biomarker indicating epithelial tumour growth. 

IgA (Immunoglobulin A) – Protein antibody found in saliva, tears and moist mucous membranes responsible for immune response to antigens, including allergic reactions. Low levels of IgA associated with cancer development. 

Insulin growth factor (IGF) – Protein and hormone that initiates growth and helps regulate blood glucose. Tumour suppressing capabilities for all stages of carcinogenesis. 

Inhibitors of Apoptosis: 

SCC-Ag (Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen) – Biomarker from fragments of squamous cell carcinoma linked antigen. Clinically applied to diagnostics for cervical and lung cancers. 

Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) – Protein expressed in healthy adults at low levels with increases found clinically in adults with benign and malignant tumours.

Carcinoantigen (CA19-9) – Tumour antigen, clinically assessed in blood to diagnose pancreatic cancer. 

CA128 – Protein tumour marker. 

CA125 (Cancer Antigen 125) – Derived from mucin glycoproteins, tumour marker clinically used for diagnostic assessment of ovarian cancer. 

Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) – Group of antimicrobials made from superoxide and nitric oxide. These cause oxidative stress in their metabolism, which is a contributing variable of oral cancer. 

DNA damage marker:

8-OHdG: 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine – Oxidised product of deoxyguanosine commonly detected in urine for assessment of oxidative stress. An inconclusive biomarker for carcinogenesis.  

intermediate filament protein: 

Cyfra 21-1 – Protein fragment a soluble cytokeratin 19/CK19 and epithelial marker.

Lactate dehydrogenase – (LDH) –Speed up the conversion of pyruvate to lactate and vice versa. Cancer patients typically have high levels of LDH. 

Immunoglobulin and metalloproteinase: 

MMP-2 (Matrix Metalloproteinase2 / Gelatinase A) – Proteolytic enzyme, linked cancer cell tissue invasion and metastasis.  

MMP-11 (Matrix Metalloproteinase 11/ Stromelysin-3) – Proteolytic enzyme for protein coding, specifically the breakdown of tissues during remodelling. 

Genomics: 

P53 gene codon 63 – Tumour suppressor.

Transcriptomics:

mRNA IL-8: Interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA –Messenger ribonucleic acid from cell nucleus DNA and carries genetic material for making Interleukin-8.

mRNA IL-1-b: Interleukin 1 Beta mRNA – Messenger ribonucleic acid from cell nucleus DNA and carries genetic material for making Interleukin 1 Beta.

mRNA S100P: S100 Calcium Binding Protein P mRNA – Messenger ribonucleic acid from cell nucleus DNA and carries genetic material for making S100 Calcium Binding Protein P.  

mRNA H3F3A: H3 histone family 3A mRNA – Messenger ribonucleic acid from cell nucleus DNA and carries genetic material for making H3 histone family 3A.

mRNA OAZ1: Ornithine Decarboxylase Antizyme 1 mRNA – Messenger nucleic acid from cell nucleus DNA and carries genetic material for making Ornithine Decarboxylase Antizyme 1.

mRNA DUSP1: Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1 mRNA – Messenger nucleic acid from cell nucleus DNA and carries genetic material for making Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1.

mRNA SAT: Spermidine/Spermine N1-acetyltransferase mRNA – Messenger nucleic acid from cell nucleus DNA and carries genetic material for making Spermidine/Spermine N1-acetyltransferase.

Metabolomics:

Caverdine – Found on soya beans is a compound and liquid with a bad odour, which has protective functions in phosphate deficiency and acid-base balance of pH in the body.  Research is inconclusive as some suggest that Caverdine promotes tumour growth, whilst others state that Caverdine can halt progression of cancer cells.

Alanine – Amino acid for protein synthesis e.g. muscle, humoral (immune) system and nervous system. Alanine also regulates blood glucose and metabolises vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) and Tryptophan. Suggested biomarker inferring cancer cell metabolism.  

Serine – Amino acid for protein synthesis e.g. of muscle tissues, enzymes. Research has suggested the supportive role of Serine in cancer cell proliferation.

Glutamine – Amino acid for protein synthesis and the humoral (immune) system. Inconclusive effect on cancer cells some state inhibition of cancer cell growth, whilst others postulate that Glutamine initiates cancer cell growth. 

Piperidine – A liquid compound that is colourless, with a bad odour.  Synthesises other compounds like enamines from ketones. Tumour suppressor for inhibiting cancer cell growth.

Taurine – Taurine is a non-proteinogenic (not protein placed during gene translation) amino acid found in the heart, brain, retina, organs and muscles. It also inhibits cancer cell proliferation, initiates cell apoptosis and assists nerve cell growth. 

Choline – Important for neurotransmission, cell growth and metabolism. Deficiency linked to cancer development. 

Pyrroline hydroxycarboxylic acid – Metabolite. 

Beta-alanine – A beta amino acid, supporting the production of Carnosine, which reduces protein damage in tissues e.g. the brain, heart and muscles throughout the body. Research proposes suppression of cancer cell proliferation and migration and increased effectiveness of cancer drug Doxorubicin.

Alpha-aminobutyric acid – A non-proteinogenic (not protein placed during gene translation) amino acid, responsible for cell metabolism. Research has also described its role in cancer diagnostics as improving identification of cancer cell binding sites for antibodies. 

Betaine – A compound found in beetroot, some seafood and wheat that regulates water balance within cells, metabolises choline and assists cell metabolism transcription via DNA methylation. 

Tyrosine – Amino acid for protein synthesis and manufacturing chemical for brain functioning. Research suggests that Tyrosine Kinases can also activate and inhibit cell functions and can support cell mutations leading to cancer development. 

Leucine – Amino acid supplying energy to muscles, supporting muscle growth repair of bones and skin. Research proposes low levels prevent cancer cell proliferation and increase cancer cell death.  

Isoleucine – Required for protein synthesis, immunity, helps regulate blood sugar levels and muscle recovery. Low levels linked to reduced number of cancer cells.

Histidine – Homeostatic properties for acid-base balance body maintained around pH 7 for optimum functioning. Supports the efficacy of cancer drugs like methotrexate.  

Tryptophan- Homeostatic properties for nitrogen and makes niacin required for the production of the neurotransmitter serotonin.  Research suggests that tumour cells ingest Tryptophan to avoid cell by the immune system. Linked to progressive stages of cancer. 

Glutamic acid- Amino acid for protein synthesis and neurotransmitter excitation. Research suggests that Glutamic acid improves the conjugation (direct contact gene sharing) of cancer drugs.

Threonine – Amino acid obtained from a diet including beans, dairy and meat that required protein synthesis. Inconclusive data on effects as a tumour suppressor or promoter of cancer cell growth. 

Carnitine – Group of compounds that regulate energy and lipid metabolism. Tumour suppressing ability.  

Pipercolic acid – Product of Lysine metabolism that modulates gene expression, mitochondrial activity and stages of cell cycles such as proliferation and apoptosis.  

Lactic acid – waste product of anaerobic respiration in the absence of oxygen. High levels in the body can be fatal as blood flow is lowered. Commonly produced by cancer cells.  

Phenylalanine – Refers to the group of amino acids found in protein like dairy products, fish, meat and eggs. Used in the body to manufacture proteins and protein required molecules.

Valine – Amino acid for protein production and increases the release of growth hormone, energy to cells and muscle recovery and rejuvenation. 

Streptococcus mitis – Gram negative, facultative anaerobic bacteria. Can colonise hard tissues like enamel and mucosa.

P. Gingivalis – Gram negative, proteolytic, anaerobic bacteria. Involved in many conditions including periodontal disease, invades gingival epithelium.

P. melaninogenica – Gram negative, anaerobic bacteria that is ‘haemolytic’ kills red blood cells and creates biofilm to spread.

Santosh et al (2016)

L-phenylalanine – A Phenylalanine amino acid found in protein like dairy products, fish, meat and eggs. Used in the body to manufacture proteins and protein required molecules.

Sphinganine – A sphingolipid or bioactive messenger regulating cell cycles from cell differentiation to cell death.  

Phytosphingosine – A fat or lipid found in the outer layer of skin or stratum corneum. Known to induce cancer cell death. 

S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine – Drug used to lower the viscosity of sputum for patient with respiratory difficulties. A mucolytic. Also naturally occurring in vegetables such as onion or garlic. 

Proteomic: 

IL-1-b: Interleukin 1 Beta – Protein mediator made by many cells including white blood cells is a proinflammatory cytokine for monocytes. 

IL-8: Interleukin 8 – Chemokine or small cytokine that mediates white blood cell migration for repair. IL8 activates neutrophils for phagocytosis. 

M2BP

mRNA: 

IL-8 – Messenger nucleic acid from cell nucleus DNA and carries genetic material for making Interleukin 8.

S100P – Messenger nucleic acid from cell nucleus DNA and carries genetic material for making S100 Calcium Binding Protein P.

SAT1 – Messenger nucleic acid from cell nucleus DNA and carries genetic material for making Spermidine/Spermine N1-acetyltransferase 1.

IL-1b  – Messenger nucleic acid from cell nucleus DNA and carries genetic material for making interleukin 1 Beta.

IIL-1b – Messenger nucleic acid from cell nucleus DNA and carries genetic material for making interleukin 1 Beta.

IL-1b – Messenger nucleic acid from cell nucleus DNA and carries genetic material for making interleukin 1B

The 10 Papers reviewed because of course you want more

1.Cristaldi, M., Mauceri, R., Di Fede, O., Giuliana, G., Campisi, G. and Panzarella, V., 2019. Salivary Biomarkers for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Diagnosis and Follow-Up: Current Status and Perspectives. Frontiers in Physiology, [online] 10, pp.1-12. Available at: <https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2019.01476/full&gt; [Accessed 3 May 2020].

●2.Aro, K., Kaczor-Urbanowicz, K. and Carreras-Presas, C., 2019. Salivaomics in oral cancer. Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery, [online] 27(2), pp.91-97. Available at: <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30507690&gt; [Accessed 3 May 2020].

●3.Gualtero, D. and Suarez Castillo, A., 2016. Biomarkers in saliva for the detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma and their potential use for early diagnosis: a systematic review. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, [online] 74(3), pp.170-177. Available at: <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26577643&gt; [Accessed 3 May 2020].

●4.Saxena, S., Sankhla, B., Sundaragiri, K. and Bhargava, A., 2017. A Review of Salivary Biomarker: A Tool for Early Oral Cancer Diagnosis. Advanced Biomedical Research, [online] 6(1), pp.90-96. Available at: <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28828341&gt; [Accessed 3 May 2020].

●5.Chattopadhyay, I. and Panda, M., 2019. Recent trends of saliva omics biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer. Journal of Oral Biosciences, [online] 61(2), pp.84-94. Available at: <https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1349007918301609&gt; [Accessed 3 May 2020].

●6.Hema Shree, K., Ramani, P., Sherlin, H., Sukumaran, G., Jeyaraj, G., Don, K., Santhanam, A., Ramasubramanian, A. and Sundar, R., 2019. Saliva as a Diagnostic Tool in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma – a Systematic Review with Meta Analysis. Pathology & Oncology Research, [online] 25(2), pp.447-453. Available at: <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30712193&gt; [Accessed 3 May 2020].

●7.Stuani, V., Rubira, C., Sant’Ana, A. and Santos, P., 2016. Salivary biomarkers as tools for oral squamous cell carcinoma diagnosis: A systematic review. Head & Neck, [online] 39(4), pp.797-811. Available at: <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27898189&gt; [Accessed 3 May 2020].

●8.Radhika, T., Jeddy, N., Nithya, S. and Muthumeenakshi, R., 2016. Salivary biomarkers in oral squamous cell carcinoma – An insight. Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research, [online] 6, pp. S51-S54. Available at: <https://www.researchgate.net/publication/306024016_Salivary_biomarkers_in_oral_squamous_cell_carcinoma_-_An_insight&gt; [Accessed 3 May 2020].

●9.Khurshid, Z., Zafar, M., Khan, R., Najeeb, S., Slowey, P. and Rehman, I., 2018. Role of Salivary Biomarkers in Oral Cancer Detection. Advances in Clinical Chemistry, [online] 10(1476), pp.23-70. Available at: <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30144841&gt; [Accessed 3 May 2020].

●10.Santosh, A., Jones, T. and Harvey, J., 2016. A review on oral cancer biomarkers: Understanding the past and learning from the present. Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, [online] 12(2), pp.486-492. Available at: <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27461598&gt; [Accessed 3 May 2020].

I hope you learnt a lot today…

All the best Teherah

Published by Teherah

Teherah started her career as a Children's Leisure Instructor then went on to work for several charity and council organisations including centres for young people with complex needs. The former experiences propelled the change from play work to teaching assisting and healthcare, which perpetuated her fascination with language and additional needs. Teherah appreciates most creative forms: literature, art, music, and dance.

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